Investigators across Europe, including intelligence agencies, will now try to piece together who and what caused the apparent explosion. This could involve multiple steps, such as checking data about the area, including seismic data and other sensors, checking whether any communications around the event had been intercepted, and checking the pipeline for any signs of deliberate damage.
Neither pipeline is running – Nord Stream 1 was suspended for maintenance in August, and Nord Stream 2 has not officially opened since Germany withdraws support for it Before Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine in late February — but both pipelines were loaded with gas. All three leaks occurred near the Danish island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea, relatively close to each other. The island is bordered by Denmark to the west, Sweden to the north, and Germany and Poland to the south. The spill occurred in international waters, but also in the exclusive economic zones of Denmark and Sweden. “The water in this area is shallow, about 50 meters on average,” said Julian Pawlak, a research associate at Helmut Schmidt University and the German Institute for Defense and Strategic Studies.
safe source guessed If these attacks are deliberate, they may be carried out by unmanned underwater drones, by ships dropping or laying mines, by divers, or even from inside pipelines. “We still don’t know what the origin of these explosions is or where they came from — whether they came from outside or from inside the pipeline,” Pawlak said. In a process called pigging, Cleaning and inspection machines can be fed into the pipes From Russia to Germany. Pigs may be repurposed to conduct attacks.
Back in 2007, before the construction of the first Nord Stream pipeline, a review of the project by the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) warned of possible explosions around the pipeline in the context of terrorism. “Despite the concrete coating, the pipes are so fragile that a single diver is enough to set up an explosive device,” its statement said. report says“However, the impact of such an attack is likely to be fairly modest, and it is very likely that a small event of this type will not result in a large explosion.”
“them [Russia] Having the capability of divers, small submarines and drones for undersea warfare,” Hansen said. Identifying any responsibility, however, is not necessarily straightforward. The relatively shallow depth of the area around the Nord Stream pipeline means it is any large submarine is unlikely Will run nearby as they are easy to spot.
Any vessel in the area could have detected other vessels that could have caused damage, Pawlak said. Subsea sensors can similarly spot things moving in the area, but it’s unclear where any of these systems are. “The Baltic Sea is not yet full of sensors, and NATO knows every movement,” Pawlak said. “On the surface, especially on the seabed, it’s still impossible to know what’s moving, what’s happening, every time, every place. .”