November 27, 2021 chainFounder Greg Meredith and blockchain scientist Atticbee were invited as guests to participate in the Hu Hui. Hoo is an innovation-driven cryptocurrency exchange located in Dubai. Its internally developed public chain HSC is built for the global cryptocurrency market.In this meeting, Greg Meredith and Atticbee shared the latest develop In RChain and extraordinary ideas about the future of blockchain and Metaverse.
Built as a coordination technology, not a payment platform
According to Greg, RChain uses blockchain as a coordination technology to provide a means for global coordination when conditions are getting worse due to climate change. RChain is designed as a scalable global computer and storage mechanism, not a payment system. It is impossible to make a general-purpose computer with a cash register, and making a cash register with a general-purpose computer is like walking in the park.
This is the first linearly expanding blockchain. This means that when you add nodes/hardware, it becomes faster, not slower. Current test data shows that each node in the test network gets approximately 1,000 tps per CPU. Therefore, a network of 10 nodes, each node has 10 CPUs, and each node gets 10,000 tps. 20 nodes with 20 CPUs each get 20,000 tps and so on. Data can be stored, updated and searched on the chain.
RChain’s smart contract language Rholang is a concurrent transaction query language that reconciles the advantages of SQL and NoSQL. This means that people can write complex queries to search the stored data, which distinguishes it from systems such as IPFS. You can statically check the concurrency and security errors of smart contracts. Therefore, errors such as causing DAO errors will be caught at compile time rather than deployment time. Imagine what would happen if Ethereum was running at 40K tps when the DAO vulnerability was exploited.
Synergy between Metaverse and RChain
In the AMA, Greg explained his long-term involvement in the metaverse field. He worked directly with the pioneers of VR/AR and was hired by Kim Fairchild himself as a research laboratory for SemNet. He is also the one who recommended the title of “software” to Alan Wexelblat.
However, Greg expressed his concerns about the real world. Yes, the meta universe is very hot, but the earth is even hotter. In fact, in just ten years, we may see a temperature rise of more than 1.5 degrees Celsius, making tropical areas uninhabitable, under wet bulb conditions-where the humidity and temperature are so high that your sweat cannot cool you down -Make it so people won’t even know that they are dying from the heat. Unfortunately, approximately 40% of the world’s population lives in tropical regions. Therefore, in just 10 years, 2.8B people will become climate migrants. Unfortunately, those 2.8B will not be able to enter the meta universe. It won’t be cooler for a server running a simulation.
Atticbee later commented that this question needs to be answered: What is the role of blockchain in the meta-universe? If Metaverse only uses the blockchain to trade game props, virtual real estate, etc. as NFT, then the current technology may be good enough, at least when the transaction volume is low. However, if Metaverse tries to simulate the real world and use the blockchain as a trusted computing layer, RChain’s calculation model is closer to the operation of the real universe than the state machine used by almost all other projects. As Greg Meredith said before, evolution has selected the best concurrent computing model, and sequential Turing machines will never be selected.
The underlying blockchain technology and the upper Metaverse will also stimulate and evolve each other. Just like history-when we only have steam engines, we can only build trains and ships. After we created the internal combustion engine, we can make cars, airplanes, etc. Every technological breakthrough will open a new door to the world of tomorrow. With RChain’s concurrent computing, seamless sharding and on-chain storage, Metaverse will be reshaped by RChain’s breakthrough technology.
Click to play VS click to pay
When asked about RChain’s ecological development plan, Greg replied that RChain focuses on a transaction-driven route. RChain is researching applications such as self-sovereign data, online advertising and sponsorship, and social networks that generate a lot of transaction volume. The economic argument is simple. Currently, proof-of-work miners earn millions of dollars every day. What makes them want to switch the proof-of-stake validator? If you reduce transaction costs, you will only cut their profits. If you reduce transaction costs by a factor of 100, but increase transaction volume by a factor of 1,000, they will get 10 times the benefits, and power consumption is only a small part of them. Now, you have a real reason for them to turn to Proof of Stake.
Once you understand that transaction volume is where the action is, then you only need to check the Internet. How many times did you click to pay and click “play”? In other words, how many times do you click to post on Instagram, Twitter or WeChat instead of paying bills or suppliers? Compared to paying someone via PayPal, Venmo or WeChat, how many times do you click on streaming on YouTube or Spotify? It is hundreds (if not thousands) to one. All transaction volumes are on clicking “play”.
No matter where you play, there are ads. In fact, online advertising is the largest economy in the world. It is bigger than oil. Therefore, RChain hopes to help people play DApps through decentralized clicks: social networks, streaming media services, logistics services, data services, etc. It wants to stream sponsored content through these decentralized services, but to do so in some way it eliminates surveillance capitalism. It also wants people to have a say in whether their data is sold and whether to sell and make a profit.
Migrate from other public chain ecosystems to RChain
RChain’s sharding solution allows other chains to be mounted as shards. This means that smart contracts can be written as if other chains are just RChain resources. In this case, there is a very easy migration for the RChain side.
The biggest stumbling block to migration is the mismatch of computational models. RChain runs simultaneously, while most other blockchains run sequentially. This means that other chains cannot handle RChain’s execution requirements. RChain execution requests to other chains will be queued and queued as they process them one at a time.
Of course, it is easy to go the other way, but it means that RChain must slow down to match the sequential semantics of other chains.
Towards a leaderless global computer
RChain entered the mainnet for less than 2 years. Last year it released a major feature: the last final state, which means that new validators can synchronize to the chain without having to go all the way back to the genesis block. This year it released a major performance improvement called block merging, which provides linear scaling. This is the culmination of Greg’s research on architecture and mathematics in the past 30 years. Part of his work can be traced back to the Microsoft BizTalk Process Orchestration that Greg worked on 20 years ago.
As Atticbee explained, there is the following relationship between “traditional computers” and blockchain “global computers”:
- Traditional computer: Blockchain computer.
- Multithreading: Concurrency of block merging.
- Multi-process: Fragmentation (composability).
- Firewall: On-chain formal verification (behavior type system).
All three parts are necessary for a truly useful global computer. And the calculation layer should be carefully selected to support all these parts, which means that the selected calculation model should support concurrency, composability, and behavior type system.
Figure: Comparison of calculation models
Unfortunately, this leaves very few options. As can be seen from the above table, only Pi or Rho-Calculus can provide all the required features. Rho-Calculus is an upgraded version of Pi-Calculus. With a more expressive reflection. It is the first calculus process suitable as a smart contract language. Greg Meredith is the founder of Rho-Calculus.
Figure: RChain’s knowledge graph
With the upcoming “block merge” milestone, multithreading/concurrency capabilities will be demonstrated. After that, RChain will have a “seamless” sharding solution that will make many shards “look and feel” like one. Finally, in the Venus milestone, a behavioral type system will be implemented to allow thousands of contracts to safely cooperate with each other. On top of this, a smart contract orchestration layer can be added, such as decentralized Kubernetes.Without a carefully selected computing model, all of these are impossible, and the platform will be locked as a payment solution, rather than a global computer that can handle a global-scale integrated computing infrastructure. Network 3.0.
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