Riots continue across Iran amid state’s extreme gender segregation regime

在这张 2022 年 9 月 21 日的照片中,伊朗示威者聚集在德黑兰的一条街道上。  <一个href="https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/picture-obtained-by-afp-outside-iran-on-september-21-shows-news-photo/1243408188?adppopup=true" 相对="nofollow noopener" 目标="_空白的" 数据-ylk="slk:法新社通过盖蒂图片社" 类="关联 ">AFP via Getty Images</a>” src=”https://s.yimg.com/ny/api/res/1.2/MEpiKaPupzNUZsEmSVKR_w–/YXBwaWQ9aGlnaGxhbmRlcjt3PTcwNTtoPTUxMw–/https://s.yimg.com/uu/api/res/1.2/i9ojM3SYw. .Jsgyt3CXI7A–~B/aD0xMDQ3O3c9MTQ0MDthcHBpZD15dGFjaHlvbg–/https://media.zenfs.com/en/the_conversation_us_articles_815/e30f94fe2699693d2462fe9868e73f50″ data-src=”https://s.yimg.com/ny/api/res/1 MEpiKaPupzNUZsEmSVKR_w–/YXBwaWQ9aGlnaGxhbmRlcjt3PTcwNTtoPTUxMw–/https://s.yimg.com/uu/api/res/1.2/i9ojM3SYw..Jsgyt3CXI7A–~B/aD0xMDQ3O3c9MTQ0MDthcHBpZD15dGFzen-jaHlvbg-media://en.fzensjaHlvbg- /the_conversation_us_articles_815/e30f94fe2699693d2462fe9868e73f50″/></div>
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In this Sept. 21, 2022 photo, Iranian demonstrators gather on a street in Tehran. AFP via Getty Images

Riots continue across Iran A 22-year-old Kurdish-Iranian woman died after being arrested, reportedly beaten iranian moral police.

Iranian forces detained Mahsa (Zhina) Amini on September 16, 2022, for not wearing a hijab as required.

As of September 26, At least 41 people have been confirmed dead Hundreds of people have arrested and injured During the protests that erupted after Amini’s death.

as a Kurdish-born scholar and Professor of Middle Eastern Studies, University of Central FloridaI have written before Gender in Middle Eastern Culture and Iran protest.

Beyond bland condemnation, discrimination against women in Iran is often overlooked while the world watches limit a country’s nuclear capabilities.

some academics and activists Criticizing the lack of initiative and public action in international law, acknowledging Iran’s systemic discrimination against women as gender segregation, and taking action to stop it.

But many discriminatory laws, including those that force women to cover their heads and faces with headscarves, Respect neither tradition nor religion And for women of all races and creeds.

After all, Amini is not a Shia woman by race or religion.

Gender segregation in Iran

This 1979 Islamic Revolution Created a republic with similar inhumane policies and practices of apartheid and discrimination South Africa under brutal apartheid regime.

Iranian laws and policies establish and maintain male and state rule over women, as well as their right to choose their own clothes or get divorced. Systemic gender inequality is enshrined in law and enforced by the regime to deprive women”right to life and liberty” and”fundamental human rights and freedoms,”according to Article 2 of the 1973 United Nations Convention on Apartheidconsidered a “crime of apartheid”.

For example, according to Article 18 of the Iranian Passport Lawmarried women still need written permission from a male guardian to travel abroad.

2022 年 9 月 19 日,成千上万的示威者在伊朗停止交通,以抗议 Mahsa Amini 在被警方拘留期间死亡。  <一个href="https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/people-gather-in-protest-against-the-death-of-mahsa-amini-news-photo/1426271257?adppopup=true" 相对="nofollow noopener" 目标="_空白的" 数据-ylk="slk:盖蒂图片社" 类="关联 ">Getty Images</a>” data-src=”https://s.yimg.com/ny/api/res/1.2/_julAsLyYumCDjul5bSRcQ–/YXBwaWQ9aGlnaGxhbmRlcjt3PTcwNTtoPTM5Nw–/https://s.yimg.com/uu/api/res/1.2/ ueBwfjMKVhFNAngDsphOnQ–~B/aD04MTE7dz0xNDQwO2FwcGlkPXl0YWNoeW9u/https://media.zenfs.com/en/the_conversation_us_articles_815/87e55da8d13cb9b30cc960d8aabb0ac2″/><noscript><img alt=Getty Images” src=”https://s.yimg.com/ny/api/res/1.2/_julAsLyYumCDjul5bSRcQ–/YXBwaWQ9aGlnaGxhbmRlcjt3PTcwNTtoPTM5Nw–/https://s.yimg.com/uu/api/res/1.2/ueBwfjMKVhFNAngDsphOnQ- -~B/aD04MTE7dz0xNDQwO2FwcGlkPXl0YWNoeW9u/https://media.zenfs.com/en/the_conversation_us_articles_815/87e55da8d13cb9b30cc960d8aabb0ac2″ class=”caas-img”/>
Thousands of demonstrators stop traffic in Iran to protest the death of Mahsa Amini in police custody on September 19, 2022. Getty Images

Iranian women cannot hold any positions in the judicial, religious and military systems, nor can they hold Expert meetingThis Expedient Appraisal Committee or Guardianship Boardthe three supreme councils of the Islamic Republic.

Women by law cannot be the president or supreme leader of Iran. According to Article 115the President of the Islamic Republic must be chosen from among “religious and political figures”.

In addition, the country of Iran Added discriminatory features to criminal law – One of the features is that women are worth half as much as men.

This principle applies to matters involving compensation for killing and to what a son or daughter receives from the family estate. They also apply to the emphasis on legal testimony or divorce.

Such laws, policies and practices continue to label women as second-class citizens who are legally and socially unequal.

barriers in everyday life

The state also stipulates System isolation In the main areas of daily life such as schools, hospitals, universities, transportation, sports, etc.

For decades, Iran’s gender segregation system put women in the back row of buses, metal strip isolated They are from men.

Under the guidance of the government, the university Limits placed on women’s choices and ban them from many fields of study.

Iran has Female audience members are generally prohibited From football and other sports venues since the 1979 revolution.

加利福尼亚州的示威者举着标语抗议马萨·阿米尼之死。  <一个href="https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/demonstrators-hold-signs-at-a-protest-over-the-death-last-news-photo/1427444152?adppopup=true" 相对="nofollow noopener" 目标="_空白的" 数据-ylk="slk:罗丹·埃肯罗斯/盖蒂图片社" 类="关联 ">Rodan Ekenrose/Getty Images</a>” data-src=”https://s.yimg.com/ny/api/res/1.2/luRGkvwJhBQQMgM4Gni_HA–/YXBwaWQ9aGlnaGxhbmRlcjt3PTcwNTtoPTQ4Mg–/https://s.yimg.com/uu/api/res/1.2/ s_0_5q9uW6J.WhHibAGa3w–~B/aD05ODU7dz0xNDQwO2FwcGlkPXl0YWNoeW9u/https://media.zenfs.com/en/the_conversation_us_articles_815/5f21321a53f6bdc7710128f4f344f4da”/><noscript><img alt=Rodan Ekenrose/Getty Images” src=”https://s.yimg.com/ny/api/res/1.2/luRGkvwJhBQQMgM4Gni_HA–/YXBwaWQ9aGlnaGxhbmRlcjt3PTcwNTtoPTQ4Mg–/https://s.yimg.com/uu/api/res/1.2/s_0_5q9uW6J. WhHibAGa3w–~B/aD05ODU7dz0xNDQwO2FwcGlkPXl0YWNoeW9u/https://media.zenfs.com/en/the_conversation_us_articles_815/5f21321a53f6bdc7710128f4f344f4da” class=”caas-img”/>

Clergy plays an important role in decision-making and decision-making believes that women must be protected From the masculine atmosphere and sight of half-clothed men at sporting events.

Under this discriminatory policy, Persian words such as za’ifeh, meaning weak and incompetent, have entered Persian Dictionary As a synonym for “woman” and “wife”.

“Women, Life, Freedom”

Iran’s Notorious Extrajudicial Ethics Police has terrorized women for decades.

favorite article Constitution of the Islamic Republic of IranThe principles of the moral police are based on Typical Shia text And implemented through modern control and prosecution tools.

2022 年 9 月 19 日,人们聚集在德黑兰,抗议 22 岁的马萨·阿米尼 (Mahsa Amini),后者在警察拘留期间死亡。  <一个href="https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/people-gather-during-a-protest-for-mahsa-amini-who-died-news-photo/1243377054?adppopup=true" 相对="nofollow noopener" 目标="_空白的" 数据-ylk="slk:Stringer/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images" 类="关联 ">Stringer/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images</a>” data-src=”https://s.yimg.com/ny/api/res/1.2/jhIrG5xN947HHnAPQtv_zw–/YXBwaWQ9aGlnaGxhbmRlcjt3PTcwNTtoPTUyOQ–/https://s.yimg.com/uu/api/res/1.2/ APpYGqwN7kl73xOPBI.Y1g–~B/aD0xMDgwO3c9MTQ0MDthcHBpZD15dGFjaHlvbg–/https://media.zenfs.com/en/the_conversation_us_articles_815/b5062c0ac5b1fc294a1cb407bacbee6e”/><noscript><img alt=Stringer/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images” src=”https://s.yimg.com/ny/api/res/1.2/jhIrG5xN947HHnAPQtv_zw–/YXBwaWQ9aGlnaGxhbmRlcjt3PTcwNTtoPTUyOQ–/https://s.yimg.com/uu/api/res/1.2/APpYGqwN7kl73xOPBI. Y1g–~B/aD0xMDgwO3c9MTQ0MDthcHBpZD15dGFjaHlvbg–/https://media.zenfs.com/en/the_conversation_us_articles_815/b5062c0ac5b1fc294a1cb407bacbee6e” class=”caas-img”/>

Certain illegal acts committed within a system of oppression and domination are considered crimes against humanity in international criminal law.

as the United Nations apartheid conventionThese crimes include the denial of basic rights that prevent one or more ethnic groups from participating in the political, social, economic and cultural life of the country.

Known for South Africa’s brutal regime, apartheid comes from the Afrikaans word meaning “separation”.it is ideology It was introduced in South Africa in 1948 with the support of the National Government.

Mandatory hijabs are at the heart of what I call extreme gender apartheid in Iran, and a misplaced hijab can lead to as many as 15 years in prison, whipping, fine and inhumane and unlawful arrests and deaths.

Some Anti-Forced Hijab Movement It happens every few years in Iran, as in the case of Zhina Amini.

In Kurdish, her name comes from “jin”, the word for woman, which has a root with the word for life, “jiyan”.

These Kurdish words are at the heart of the most used slogans Kurdish women fighters against ISIS Women in Iraq and Syria, and across Iran today, are against the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Adding “azadi” – the Kurdish word for freedom – and the slogan “Jin, Jiyan, Azadi” meaning “women, life, freedom” rang out among street protesters in Iran and around the world to eradicate the country’s gender segregation.

This article is reproduced from conversation, an independent non-profit news site dedicated to sharing the thoughts of academic experts. Its authors are: Haydar Hazri, University of Central Florida. If you find it interesting, you can Subscribe to our weekly newsletter.

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Haidar Khezri does not work for, consult with, own shares in, or receive funds from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and has not disclosed any relevant affiliations other than his academic appointments.

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