3D imaging shows how shark guts work like Tesla valves

Born in Serbia in 1920 inventor Nikola Tesla Designed and obtained what he called “Valve catheter”: A pipe whose internal design ensures that fluid flows in a preferred direction without moving parts, making it ideal for microfluidic applications and other uses.according to A recent paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society BThe Tesla valve also provides a useful model for how food passes through the digestive systems of many sharks.Based on a new CT scan of the shark’s intestines, scientists have concluded that the intestine is formed naturally Tesla valve.

“It’s time to use some modern technology to observe these very amazing shark spiral intestines,” Co-author Samantha Leigh says California State University Dominguez Hills. “We have developed a new method to digitally scan these tissues, and now it is possible to observe soft tissues in great detail without having to slice them.”

The key to Tesla’s ingenious valve design is a set of interconnected, asymmetric, teardrop-like circuits.exist His patent applicationTesla described this series of 11 flow control segments as “an insurmountable obstacle that is composed of enlarged, recessed, protruding, baffle or barrels that flow in the opposite direction.” And because it is in the absence of moving parts. To achieve this, the Tesla valve is more resistant to the wear and tear of frequent operations.

Tesla claims that the speed of water flowing through his valve will be 200 times slower than in the other direction, which may be an exaggeration.A team of scientists from New York University A working Tesla valve was built in 2021According to the inventor’s design, the claim was tested by measuring the water flow through the valve in two directions under different pressures. Scientists have discovered that the flow of water in non-preferred directions is only about twice slower.

However, the flow rate Proved to be a key factorThe valve provides very little resistance at low flow rates, but once the rate increases above a certain threshold, the resistance of the valve will also increase, resulting in reverse turbulence, causing the pipeline to be “blocked” by eddy currents and destructive currents. Therefore, according to co-author Leif Ristroph, it is actually more like a switch and can also help smooth the flow of pulses, similar to how an AC/DC converter converts alternating current to direct current. In fact, Ristoph thinks this may be Tesla’s intention to design the valve, because his greatest reputation is the invention of AC motors and AC/DC converters.

Now, Tesla Valve is gaining insight into the unusual structure of shark intestines, thanks to a team of researchers from three universities: CSU, Dominguez Hills; the University of Washington; and the University of California, Irvine.

shark It is a top predator and feeds on a variety of species, so it is important for controlling biodiversity in a larger ecosystem. Most sharks have a spiral intestine, which is composed of a different number of folds in the intestinal tissue, and is usually one of four basic structures: columnar, curled, funnel directed toward the back, or funnel directed toward the front. These four types of intestines are usually depicted in 2D sketches, which are expanded in two dimensions after anatomy, or are imaged into two-dimensional slices through three-dimensional structures. But this did not give scientists insight into how the structure works in situ.

Last year, Japanese researchers Reconstructed micrographs of tissue sections According to the author of this latest paper, from a cat shark to a three-dimensional model, it provides “a tempting glimpse of the anatomical structure of the scroll-type spiral intestine.” Adam Summers, a co-author of the Friday Harbor Laboratory at the University of Washington, and his colleagues believe that a CT scan might accomplish a similar thing because the technique involves taking a series of X-ray images from different angles and then combining them into a 3D image.

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